West nile virus prevention || West nile virus 2022

What is the (WNV) West Nile virus?


west nile virus prevention


According to WHO The West Nile virus (WNV) is spread by mosquitoes. The virus can infect not only humans many birds, horses, and some others. The West Nile virus can spread in transfused blood and transplanted organs also but Very rarely. West Nile virus (WNV) Attacks the end of the summer and early fall in mild zones. It can also Attack year-round in southern climates. It is seen that most often, the West Nile virus makes mild, flu-like symptoms. The virus can cause deadly illnesses. Like

  1. Brain inflammation.
  1. Inflammation in the brain and spinal cord.
  1. Inflammation in the brain & its surrounding membrane.


The Outbreaks of West Nile virus?

In 1937 the West Nile Virus was identified in a Woman in the West Nile district of Uganda. The deadly virus also was identified in crows, birds in 1953 in delta region. The West Nile virus was not thought disease of birds before 1997, at the same time many more birds died in Israel encephalitis and paralysis. WNV-related human infections have been documented for more than fifty years in numerous nations throughout the world.

A West Nile virus that was prevalent in Israel and Tunisia was introduced into New York in 1999, causing a significant outbreak that quickly spread across the entire continental United States of America (USA) in the years that followed. The WNV outbreak in the USA from 1999 to 2010 made it clear that the globe is seriously endangered by the importation and establishment of vector-borne viruses outside of their natural home

The countries with the most outbreaks were Greece, Israel, Romania, Russia, and the USA. Sites of outbreaks are along important bird migration routes. WNV was widespread in its initial distribution area, which included Australia, parts of West Asia, the Middle East, and much of Africa. The virus has expanded since being introduced in the USA in 1999, and it is now well-established from Canada to Venezuela.


Diagnosing the infection of WNV.

The doctors diagnose WNV with a blood test. This can find out whether you have genetic material or antibodies in your blood associated with WNV.

In the event that your symptoms are severe and suspected to be brain-related, your doctor might advise a lumbar puncture. A needle is put into your spine during this surgery, also known as a spinal tap, to remove fluid. As a result of West Nile virus infection, the white blood cell count in the fluid may rise, indicating an infection. MRIs and other imaging tests can also be used to detect brain inflammation and edema.


Prevention

preventing horse transmission:

The creation of an active animal health surveillance system to identify new cases in birds and horses is crucial in order to provide early warning for veterinary and human public health authorities because WNV outbreaks in animals occur before human cases do. In the Americas, it's crucial to support the neighborhood by informing local authorities of deceased birds.

For horses, vaccines have been created. Animals with viral infections receive supportive care that is according to accepted veterinary standards.

 

lowering people's risk of infection

The only approach to prevent infection in humans in the absence of a vaccine is to increase public awareness of the risk factors and inform individuals of the steps they may take to limit their exposure to the virus. Education about public health should emphasize the following:

  • Lowering the danger of transmission via mosquitoes. The first line of defense against mosquito bites for both individuals and communities should be the usage of mosquito nets, personal insect repellent, wearing light-colored clothes (long-sleeved shirts and pants), and avoiding outdoor activities during the peak biting season. Community programs should also motivate people to eliminate mosquito breeding grounds in residential areas.
  • Lowering the possibility of transmission from animal to human. When handling sick animals or their tissues, as well as when slaughtering and culling operations are taking place, gloves and other protective apparel should be worn.
  • Lowering the risk of transmission through organ and blood donation. After evaluating the local/regional epidemiological situation, limits on blood and organ donation as well as laboratory testing should be taken into account in the affected areas during the time of the epidemic.


Vector Control

In places where the virus is present, developing comprehensive, integrated mosquito surveillance and control programs is essential for preventing People's WNV infections. Studies should pinpoint local mosquito species, especially those that might act as a "bridge" from birds to people, that are involved in WNV transmission. The use of integrated control approaches such as source reduction (with community involvement), water management, chemical, and biological control techniques should be prioritized.


preventing infections in medical facilities

The suspected (infected) patients are cared for by well-experienced workers in healthcare. The suspected (infected) patients are cared for by well-experienced workers in healthcare, or specimens handle from them, should implement standard infection control precautions. The WNV infection Samples are collected from people and animals and it handled by trained worker laboratories.